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Author Levine, Myron M. ♦ Campbell, James D. ♦ Kotloff, Karen L.
Source CiteSeerX
Content type Text
File Format PDF
Subject Domain (in DDC) Computer science, information & general works ♦ Data processing & computer science
Subject Keyword British Medical Bulletin ♦ British Council ♦ Immune Response ♦ Vaccine Development Paradigm Considerable Attention ♦ Clinical Testing ♦ Peptide Synthesis ♦ Various Pathogens1 ♦ New Candidate ♦ Vaccine Pipeline ♦ Adjuvant Technology ♦ Acellular Pertussis Vaccine ♦ Vaccine Safety ♦ Polymerase Chain Reaction Amplification ♦ Many Interesting New Vaccine Candidate ♦ Sophisticated Clinical Vaccine Study ♦ Specific Method ♦ Improved Vaccine ♦ Vaccine Development Pipeline ♦ Towards Ultimate Licensure ♦ Monoclonal Antibody ♦ Group Neisseria Meningitidis ♦ Vaccine Development ♦ Candidate Safety ♦ Healthy Adult ♦ Vaccine Candidate ♦ Early Dose Response Correspondence ♦ Novel Way ♦ Powerful Tool ♦ Entire Genome ♦ Small Number ♦ Biotechnology Revolution ♦ High Throughput Informatics ♦ Upstream Portion ♦ Versatile Advance ♦ Modern Biotechnology ♦ Improved Vaccines2 ♦ Recent Year ♦ Recombinant Hepatitis Vaccine ♦ Various Cytokine ♦ Haemophilus Influenzae Type ♦ Recombinant Dna Technology ♦ Streptococcus Pneumoniae ♦ Effector Component ♦ Target Population
Abstract The biotechnology revolution During the past two decades, advances in biotechnology and increased knowledge of the inductive and effector components of immune responses have revolutionized the field of vaccine development. This has opened a vaccine ‘pipeline ’ that has already resulted in the licensure of many new and improved vaccines including recombinant hepatitis B vaccine, acellular pertussis vaccines, and conjugate vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae type b, group C Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The application of recombinant DNA technology, polymerase chain reaction amplification, monoclonal antibodies, peptide synthesis, genomics (in particular, the sequencing of the entire genome of various pathogens1), proteomics and high throughput informatics are examples of the powerful tools driving the development of desirable new and improved vaccines2. Combined with advances in adjuvant technology, specific methods of modulating immune responses (e.g. by the administration of various cytokines), and novel ways of delivering antigens, many interesting new vaccine candidates and technologies are reaching the stage of clinical testing. The vaccine development paradigm Considerable attention has been focused in recent years on the versatile advances in modern biotechnology that are giving rise to the exciting new candidates that fill the upstream portion of the vaccine development pipeline. On the other hand, less notice has generally been paid to the series of sophisticated clinical vaccine studies that must be properly executed to advance a vaccine candidate, incrementally, towards ultimate licensure, based on proof of the vaccine’s safety, immunogenicity and efficacy in target populations. Phase I trials Phase I trials preliminarily examine the candidate’s safety and immuno-genicity in small numbers of healthy adults. Such early dose/response Correspondence to:
Educational Role Student ♦ Teacher
Age Range above 22 year
Educational Use Research
Education Level UG and PG ♦ Career/Technical Study
Publisher Date 2014-01-01