|Subject Domain (in DDC)||Computer science, information & general works ♦ Data processing & computer science|
|Abstract||In many markets relationship specific investments are necessary to enable trade. Typically there are multiple buyers, multiple sellers and heterogeneous gains from trade. In some markets a buyer and seller must make different and separate investments to trade, in others investments are jointly made and negotiated. These investments are subject to inefficiencies: under-investment, due to potential hold-up, and over-investment to generate “outside options”. When investments are separate over-investment is limited. In contrast, inefficiency from under-investment cannot be bounded. This result reverses when investments are negotiated. In this setting there is no under-investment. However, inefficiency from over-investment cannot now be bounded.|
|Educational Role||Student ♦ Teacher|
|Age Range||above 22 year|
|Education Level||UG and PG ♦ Career/Technical Study|
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