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Author Fessler, Daniel M. T. ♦ Moya, Cristina M.
Source CiteSeerX
Content type Text
File Format PDF
Subject Domain (in DDC) Computer science, information & general works ♦ Data processing & computer science
Subject Keyword Affective Display ♦ Uniquely Human Component ♦ Many Mammal ♦ Human Infant ♦ Infant Cry ♦ Multimodal Behavior ♦ Large Muscle Group ♦ Many Display ♦ Nonverbal Vocalization ♦ Prototypical Form ♦ Cultural Display Rule ♦ Helpless Human Infant ♦ Distress Vocalization ♦ Facial Expression ♦ Listener Auditory System ♦ Ancestral Population ♦ Core Condition
Abstract We define crying as a multimodal behavior consisting of tears, nonverbal vocalizations (wails, sobs), and facial expressions of distress. Being most frequent in infants, and arguably less subject to cultural display rules, we take infant crying as the prototypical form. Correspondingly, we take distress (sadness, fear, anger, or pain) as the core condition expressed through crying since, although adults sometimes cry in other circumstances (notably when happy), infants appear not to do so. Lastly, although tears are a uniquely human component of crying, distress vocalizations and corresponding displays occur in many mammals, again primarily present in infancy. Compared to most affective displays, crying is intrinsically costly, particularly for human infants. Full-fledged crying involves contraction of large muscle groups, and hence is energetically more expensive than many displays. Moreover, cries of helpless human infants are easily detected by animals, increasing the risk of predation in ancestral populations. Finally, whether by design of the cries themselves, design of listeners’ auditory systems, or both, crying is irritating and distracting to adults (particularly non-kin), increasing the risk of infanticide. These costs must be considered in any functional
Educational Role Student ♦ Teacher
Age Range above 22 year
Educational Use Research
Education Level UG and PG ♦ Career/Technical Study