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Author Hibbett, David S.
Source CiteSeerX
Content type Text
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Subject Domain (in DDC) Computer science, information & general works ♦ Data processing & computer science
Subject Keyword Morphological Evolution ♦ Systematic Biology ♦ Multistate Approach ♦ Maximum Likelihood ♦ Minimal Model ♦ Character Evolution ♦ Additive Binary Coding ♦ Previous Study ♦ General Trend ♦ Ancestral Form ♦ Internal Spore Production ♦ Multistate Coding ♦ Gasteroid Form ♦ Approach Cannot ♦ Diverse Group ♦ Following Conclusion ♦ Coral Fungi ♦ Evolutionary Tendency ♦ Maximum Likelihood Method ♦ Body Form ♦ Body Evolution ♦ Multistate Method ♦ Possible Rate Category ♦ Labile Morphology ♦ Rate Category ♦ Binary Coding ♦ Binary Coding Suggest ♦ Crustlike Resupinate Form ♦ Character State ♦ Latter Finding ♦ Active Trend ♦ Character-coding Regime ♦ Euagarics Clade ♦ Pileate-stipitate Form ♦ Ancestral State Reconstruction ♦ Binary Character ♦ Irreversible Cannot ♦ Additive Binary
Abstract Abstract. — The homobasidiomycetes is a diverse group of macrofungi that includes mushrooms, puffballs, coral fungi, and other forms. This study used maximum likelihood methods to determine if there are general trends (evolutionary tendencies) in the evolution of fruiting body forms in homobasidiomycetes, and to estimate the ancestral forms of the homobasidiomycetes and euagarics clade. Character evolution was modeled using a published 481-species phylogeny under two character-coding regimes: additive binary coding, using DISCRETE, and multistate (five-state) coding, using MULTISTATE. Inferences regarding trends in character evolution made under binary coding were often in conflict with those made under multistate coding, suggesting that the additive binary coding approach cannot serve as a surrogate for multistate methods. MULTISTATE was used to develop a “minimal ” model of fruiting body evolution, in which the 20 parameters that specify rates of transformations among character states were grouped into the fewest possible rate categories. The minimal model required only four rate categories, one of which is approaching zero, and suggests the following conclusions regarding trends in evolution of homobasidiomycete fruiting bodies: (1) there is an active trend favoring the evolution of pileate-stipitate forms (those with a cap and stalk); (2) the hypothesis that the evolution of gasteroid forms (those with internal spore production, such as puffballs) is irreversible cannot be rejected; and (3) crustlike resupinate forms are not a particularly labile morphology. The latter finding contradicts the conclusions of a previous study that used binary character coding. Ancestral state reconstructions under binary coding suggest that the ancestor of the homobasidiomycetes was
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Learning Resource Type Article