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Author Bilardi, Gianfranco ♦ Ekanadham, Kattamuri ♦ Pattnaik, Pratap
Source ACM Digital Library
Content type Text
Publisher Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)
File Format PDF
Copyright Year ©2009
Language English
Subject Domain (in DDC) Computer science, information & general works ♦ Data processing & computer science
Subject Keyword Physical constraints on machines ♦ Pipelined hierarchical memory ♦ Speculative processors
Abstract The capability of the Random Access Machine (RAM) to execute any instruction in constant time is not realizable, due to fundamental physical constraints on the minimum size of devices and on the maximum speed of signals. This work explores how well the ideal RAM performance can be approximated, for significant classes of computations, by machines whose building blocks have constant size and are connected at a constant distance. A novel memory structure is proposed, which is $\textit{pipelined}$ (can accept a new request at each cycle) and $\textit{hierarchical},$ exhibiting optimal latency $\textit{a}(\textit{x})$ = $O(x^{1/d})$ to address $\textit{x},$ in $\textit{d}-dimensional$ realizations. In spite of block-transfer or other memory-pipeline capabilities, a number of previous machine models do not achieve a full overlap of memory accesses. These are examples of machines with explicit data movement. It is shown that there are $\textit{direct-flow}$ computations (without branches and indirect accesses) that require time superlinear in the number of instructions, on all such machines. To circumvent the explicit-data-movement constraints, the Speculative Prefetcher (SP) and the Speculative Prefetcher and Evaluator (SPE) processors are developed. Both processors can execute any $\textit{direct-flow}$ program in linear time. The SPE also executes in linear time a class of loop programs that includes many significant algorithms. Even quicksort, a somewhat irregular, recursive algorithm admits a linear-time SPE implementation. A relation between instructions called address dependence is introduced, which limits memory-access overlap and can lead to superlinear time, as illustrated with the classical merging algorithm.
ISSN 00045411
Age Range 18 to 22 years ♦ above 22 year
Educational Use Research
Education Level UG and PG
Learning Resource Type Article
Publisher Date 2009-08-01
Publisher Place New York
e-ISSN 1557735X
Journal Journal of the ACM (JACM)
Volume Number 56
Issue Number 5
Page Count 57
Starting Page 1
Ending Page 57


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Source: ACM Digital Library